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Predefinito Anadrol 50 ® (oxymetholome) - 26-06-2007, 04:06 AM

Anadrol 50 ® (oxymetholome)


Active Life: Less than 16 hours
Drug Class: Highly Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid (Oral)
Average Dose: Men 50-150 mg/day
Acne: Yes
Water Retention: Yes, high
High Blood Pressure: Yes
Liver Toxic: Yes, very high
Aromatization: Debatable
DHT Conversion: It is a derivative of DHT
Decrease HPTA function: Yes, extreme

Anadrol 50® is the U.S. brand name for oxymetholone, a very potent oral androgen. This compound was first made available in 1960, by the international drug firm Syntex. Since oxymetholone is quite reliable in its ability to increase red blood cell production (and effect characteristic of most anabolic/androgenic steroids), it showed great promise in treating cases of severe anemia. It turned out to be well suited for this purpose, and was popular for quite some time. But recent years have brought fourth a number of new treatments, most notably the non-steroidal hormone Epogen (erythropoietin). This drug is shown to have a much more direct effect on the red blood cell count, without the side effects of a strong androgen. Syntex stopped in the U.S. in 1993, which was around the same time they decided to drop this item in a number of foreign countries as well. Plenastril from Switzerland and Austria was dropped; following soon was Oxitosona from Spain. Many Athletes feared Anadrol 50 might be on the way out for good. But new HIV/AIDS studies have shown a new light on oxymetholone. These studies are finding (big surprise) exceptional anti-wasting properties to the compound and believe it can be used safely in many such cases. Interest has been peaked, and as of 1998 Anadrol 50 is again being sold in the United States. This time we see the same Anadrol 50 brand name, but the manufacturer is the drug firm Unimed. Syntex continues to market & license this drug in a number of countries however (under a few different brand names).

Anadrol 50 is considered by many to be the most powerful steroid available, with results of this compound being extremely dramatic. A steroid novice experimenting with oxymetholone is likely to gain 20 to 30 pounds of massive bulk, and it can often be accomplished in less than 6 weeks, with only 50-100mg a day. This steroid produces a lot of trouble with water retention, so let there be little doubt that much of this gain is simply bloat. But for the user this is often little consequence, feeling bigger and stronger on Anadrol 50 than any steroid they are likely to cross. Although the smooth look that results from water retention is often not attractive, it can aid quite a bit to the level of size and strength gained. The muscle is fuller, will contract better and is provided a level of protection in the form of "lubrication" to the joints as some of this extra water is held into and around connective tissues. This will allow for more elasticity, and will hopefully decrease the chance for injury when lifting heavy. It should be noted however, that on the other hand the very rapid gain in mass might place too much stress on your connective tissues for this to compensate. The tearing of pectoral and biceps tissue is commonly associated with heavy lifting while massing up on heavy androgens. There is such a thing as gaining too fast. Pronounced estrogen trouble also puts the user at risk for developing gynecomastia. Individuals sensitive to the effects of estrogen, or looking to retain a more quality look, will therefore often add nolvadex to each cycle.
It is important to note however, that this drug does not directly convert to estrogen in the body. Oxymetholone is a derivative of dihydrotestosterone, which gives it a structure that cannot be aromatized. As such, many have speculated as to what makes this hormone so troublesome in terms of estrogenic side effects. Some have suggested that it has progestational activity, similar to nandrolone, and is not actually estrogenic at all. Since the obvious side effects of both estrogens and progestins are very similar, this explanation might be a plausible one. However we do find medical studies looking at this possibility. One such tested the progestational activity of various steroids including nandrolone, norethandrolone, methandrostenolone, testosterone and oxymetholone. It reported no significant progestational effect inherent in oxymetholone or methandrostenolone, slight activity with testosterone and strong progestational effect inherent in nandrolone and norethandrolone. With such findings it starts to seem much more likely that oxymetholone can intrinsically activate the estrogen receptor itself, similar to but more profoundly than the estrogenic androgen methAndriol.
If this is the case we can only combat the estrogenic side effects of oxymetholone with estrogen receptor antagonists such as Nolvadex or Clomid, and not with an aromatase inhibitor. The strong anti-aromatase compounds such as Arimidex, Femara, or Aromasin would prove to be totally useless with this steroid, as aromatase is not involved.

Anadrol 50 is also a very potent androgen. This factor tends to produce many pronounced, unwanted androgenic side effects. Oily skin, acne and body/facial hair growth can be seen very quickly with this drug. Many individuals respond with severe acne, often requiring medication to keep it under control. Some of these individuals find that Accutaine works well, which is a strong prescription drug that acts on the sebaceous glands to reduce the release of oils. Those with a predisposition for male pattern baldness may want to stay away from Anadrol 50 completely, as this is certainly a possible side effect during therapy. And while some very adventurous female athletes do experiment with this compound, it is much too androgenic to recommend. Irreversible virilization symptoms can be the result and may occur very quickly, possibly before you have a chance to take action.
It is interesting to note that Anadrol 50 does exhibit some tendency to convert to dihydrotestosterone, although this does not occur via the 5-alpha reductase enzyme (responsible for altering testosterone to form DHT) as it is already a dihydrotestosterone based steroid. Aside from the added c-17 alpha alkylation, oxymetholone differs from DHT only by the addition of a 2-hydroxymethylene group. This grouping can be removed metabolically however, reducing oxymetholone to the potent androgen l7alpha-methyl dihydrotestosterone (mesterolone; methyldihydrotestosterone). There is little doubt that this biotransformation contributes at least at some level to the androgenic nature of this steroid, especially when we note that in its initial state Anadrol 50 has a notably low binding affinity for the androgen receptor. So although we have the option of using the reductase inhibitor finasteride (Proscar) to reduce the androgenic nature of testosterone, it would be of no benefit with Anadrol 50 as this enzyme is not involved.
The principle drawback to Anadrol 50 is that it is a 17alpha alkylated compound. Although this design gives it the ability to withstand oral administration, it can be very stressful to the liver. Anadrol 50 is particularly dubious because we require such a high milligram amount per dosage. The difference is great when comparing it to other oral steroids like Dianabol or Winstrol, which have the same chemical alteration. Since they have a slightly higher affinity for the androgen receptor, they are effective in much smaller doses. Anadrol 50 has a lower affinity, which may be why we have a 50mg tablet dosage. When looking at the medical requirements, the recommended dosage for all ages has been 1 - 5 mg/kg of body weight. This would give a 220lb person a dosage as high as 10 Anadrol 50 tablets (500mg) per day. There should be little wonder why when liver cancer has been linked to steroid use, Anadrol 50 is generally the culprit. Athletes actually never need such a high dosage and will take in the range of only 1-3 tablets per day. Many happily find that one tablet is all they need for exceptional results, and avoid higher amounts. Cautious users will also limit the intake of this compound to no longer than 4-6 weeks and have their liver enzymes checked regularly with a doctor. Kidney functions may also need to be looked after during longer use, as water retention/high blood pressure can take a toll on the body. Before starting a cycle, one should know to give Anadrol 50 the respect it is due. It is a very powerful drug, but not always a friendly one.
When discontinuing Anadrol 50, the crash can be equally powerful. To begin with, the level of water retention will quickly diminish, dropping the user's body weight dramatically. This should be expected, and not of much concern. What is of great concern is restoring endogenous testosterone production. Anadrol 50 will quickly and effectively lower natural levels during a cycle, so HCG and Clomid/Nolvadex are a must when discontinuing a cycle.
The old practice of slowly tapering off your dosage is totally ineffective at raising testosterone levels. Without ancillary drugs, run away cortisol levels will likely strip much of the muscle that was gained during the cycle. If HCG and Clomid/Nolvadex are used properly, the person should be able to maintain a considerable amount of new muscle mass. Before going off, some alternately choose to first switch over to a milder injectable like Deca-Durabolin. This is in an effort to harden up the new mass, and can prove to be an effective practice. Although a drop of weight due to water loss is likely when making the switch, the end result should be the retention of more (quality) muscle mass with a less pronounced crash. Remember ancillaries though, as testosterone production will not be rebounding during Deca therapy.


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Predefinito 26-06-2007, 12:41 PM


Anadrol 50

(oxymetholone)

Anadrol 50(commonly called by athletes "A50" or "A-bombs") was initially developed as a compound to help people with anemia, and has since been used very successfully to aid people who are suffering from many other diseases where weight loss is a concern. Thus, it is clearly an effective agent for promoting weight gain, increasing appetite, gaining strength, and increasing Red Blood Cell count. And, as with most Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids (AAS), it has it´s downsides as well. Anadrol will inhibit your body´s natural production of hormones (testosterone, etc& ), will negatively affect your blood lipid profile, can cause water retention, is notorious for causing headaches, and is also highly liver toxic (in fact, it has the worst reputation for hepatoxicity out of all steroids). Paradoxically, although one the benefits touted by it´s original manufacturer (Syntex) is that it can be used to stimulate weight gain through increasing appetite, taking too much may actually inhibit your appetite!
Anadrol Effects on Body

I think, in order to gain a complete understanding of the Anadrol effects on body, we need to take a look at its advantages contrasted with its disadvantages. Anadrol is a DHT-derived compound, and is 17-Alpha-Alkylated steroid, meaning that it has been altered at the 17th carbon position to survive oral ingestion. Most oral steroids are 17aa, and this helps them make it through your liver in a useful form. Sounds great, right? Lets 17alpha-alkylate everything! Well& as you can imagine, there´s a down side.
Anadrol Side Effects

This 17aa alteration, which makes it possible for Anadrol to survive its first pass through your liver, also makes it very taxing on your liver. How taxing is A50 and how much weight can you gain from its use? Well, there was a 30 week study done on A50 and, as you can expect, a reasonable amount of side effects were noted. The fact that A50 causes some side effects has really never been in debate. But how effective was the drug? Well, first it should be mentioned that this study was done on people with AIDS related wasting, and they actually gained weight (8+kg) while the control group lost weight, and had increased mortality rates. (1). I suppose, if you´re in a study because you have a wasting disease which is also a terminal illness, you don´t want to end up in the control group& .Anyway, weight gain in this study peaked at 19-20 weeks, though, so the last 10 weeks weren´t very productive in this respect. Clearly, you wouldn´t want to run Anadrol for 20 weeks, given its toxicity, but after that, any effect in terms of weight and strength gains would be negligible. So, with regards to sides from Anadrol, and the sheer fact that this study lasted so long (30 weeks), it should be apparent that they can be kept under control and the drug can be used safely. People are commonly told to limit their intake of A50 to 4 weeks or less& I´m a bit less conservative and think you can easily run A50 for 6 weeks or more.
From personal experience, however, I can tell you that gains from Anadrol are quite dramatic for the first 3 weeks, and then quickly level off. Unfortunately, I find that the side effects experienced from Anadrol (which include a headache, bloating, elevated blood pressure, and a general "unwell" feeling for me) remain for the entire duration of use& .but I find, as usual, side effects for this drug are pretty much half legend and half truth. Since Anadrol is derived from DHT, it can´t actually convert to estrogen (via the aromatase enzyme), and it´s not a progestin or a compound with progestenic activity& so the estrogenic (?) side effects produced by it are of a very mysterious nature. It has been speculated that perhaps it can stimulate the estrogen receptor without actually being converted to estrogen& that´s about as plausible an explanation as I´ve heard& However, things really get strange, when Oxymetholone has been used in studies to alter the female reproductive/menstrual cycle; in those cases, it has lowered plasma progesterone levels! (7)One would expect that an AI (aromatase inhibitor) wouldn´t be of much use with this drug, but many have found that Letrozole (which has, in some cases been shown to reduce estrogen in the body to an undetectable amount)(6) can greatly reduce or even eliminate many of the more noticeable side effects of Anadrol, such as the bloating.
As I´ve stated, however, the sides from this drug are certainly no joke, but are easily preventable, and controllable. One study even showed very few sides for subjects using up to 100mgs of Oxymetholone (2). In the original UnderGround Steroid HandBook, Dan Duchaine states that he used it at doses up to 150mgs/day. Clearly, Anadrol´s hepatoxicity has been a bit exaggerated, in some circles. Be that as it may, my suggestion is still to limit Anadrol´s use to 6 weeks, at a maximum& even if just to err on the side of caution. Of course, I have personally run this drug for much longer..
How should we use Anadrol? I´d probably be willing to include Anadrol in a cycle including injectable steroids, but not other 17aa compounds. I´d make any 6-week-run of this compound begin at the start of a cycle, as a form of "jumpstart" towards seeing gains quickly. The quick gains you will get from Anadrol (up to a pound per day for the first 2 weeks are not uncommon in Steroid.com members) are also just as quick to disappear upon cessation of use& .unless you are simply using it as a kickstarter, while waiting for your other compounds to kick-in. I´ll go out on a limb here and say that utilizing Anadrol as a "Jumpstart" is the most popular use of this drug for athletes and bodybuilders today. I´ll also say that this drug is immensely popular with strength athletes who don´t have to worry about weight classes (Field athletes and strongmen), and with powerlifters in the heavier weight brackets. It´s also important to note that in one study by Schroder et. Al (2) anadrol showed that it has the ability to lower serum SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin& which binds to your free test and makes it no longer useful for anabolism, among other things) concentrations by 54.9 ± 25.8 and 45 ± 16.2 nmol/l in the 50- and 100-mg treatment groups. This means there will be more free test circulating around your body when you take this drug& clearly, this would produce some synergy when stacked with other steroids. Given the large amounts of weight and strength which can be gained in a relatively short time span on this drug, I´m sure this comes as no surprise to many.
Another important and often understated characteristic of this compound is that Oxymetholone doesn´t bind well to the androgen receptor (Relative Binding Affinity = too low to be determined) (3) which is the lowest I´ve ever read about. Basically, what this tells me is that there are a lot of non-receptor mediated effects from this steroid, making it a very potent addition to ANY BULKING stack, because it won´t be competing for the receptor sites with the other steroids you´re using. It´s also, as you may have guessed a very poor choice for a cutting stack.

What is Anadrol?

(Oxymetholone)
[17 beta-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylene-17 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-androstan-3-one]
Molecular Weight: 332.482
Molecular Formula: C 21 H 32 O 3
Melting Point: 178-180C
Manufacturer: Syntex (Originally)
Release Date: 1960
Effective Dose: 100mgs (optimal)
Active Life: <16hours
Detection Time: up to 8 weeks
Androgenic: Anabolic Ratio: 45:320

References:
  1. Br J Nutr. 1996 Jan;75(1):129-38.
  2. Schroeder et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E 120-28
  3. Endocrinology. 1984 Jun;114(6):2100-6.
  4. HIV Clin Trials. 2003 May-Jun;4(3):150-63.
  5. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Nov;53(5):905-8
  6. Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Apr;5(2):260-3
  7. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Sep 1;117(1):121-5.

Ultima Modifica di Antò : 05-12-2007 08:54 PM.
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Predefinito 21-11-2007, 09:22 AM


Anadrol 50

(Oxymetholone)
[17 beta-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylene-17 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-androstan-3-one]
Molecular Weight: 332.482
Molecular Formula: C 21 H 32 O 3
Melting Point: 178-180C
Manufacturer: Syntex (Originally)
Release Date: 1960
Effective Dose: 100mgs (optimal)
Active Life: <16hours
Detection Time: up to 8 weeks
Androgenic: Anabolic Ratio: 45:320


Anadrol (commonly called by athletes “A50” or “A-bombs”) was initially developed as a compound to help people with anemia, and has since been used very successfully to aid people who are suffering from many other diseases where weight loss is a concern. Thus, it is clearly an effective agent for promoting weight gain, increasing appetite, gaining strength, and increasing Red Blood Cell count. And, as with most Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids (AAS), it has it’s downsides as well. Anadrol will inhibit your body’s natural production of hormones (testosterone, etc…), will negatively affect your blood lipid profile, can cause water retention, is notorious for causing headaches, and is also highly liver toxic (in fact, it has the worst reputation for hepatoxicity out of all steroids). Paradoxically, although one the benefits touted by it’s original manufacturer (Syntex) is that it can be used to stimulate weight gain through increasing appetite, taking too much may actually inhibit your appetite!


I think, in order to gain a complete understanding of this compound, we need to take a look at its advantages contrasted with its disadvantages. Anadrol is a DHT-derived compound, and is 17-Alpha-Alkylated steroid, meaning that it has been altered at the 17th carbon position to survive oral ingestion. Most oral steroids are 17aa, and this helps them make it through your liver in a useful form. Sounds great, right? Lets 17alpha-alkylate everything! Well…as you can imagine, there’s a down side. This 17aa alteration, which makes it possible for Anadrol to survive its first pass through your liver, also makes it very taxing on your liver. How taxing is A50 and how much weight can you gain from its use? Well, there was a 30 week study done on A50 and, as you can expect, a reasonable amount of side effects were noted. The fact that A50 causes some side effects has really never been in debate. But how effective was the drug? Well, first it should be mentioned that this study was done on people with AIDS related wasting, and they actually gained weight (8+kg) while the control group lost weight, and had increased mortality rates. (1). I suppose, if you’re in a study because you have a wasting disease which is also a terminal illness, you don’t want to end up in the control group….Anyway, weight gain in this study peaked at 19-20 weeks, though, so the last 10 weeks weren’t very productive in this respect. Clearly, you wouldn’t want to run Anadrol for 20 weeks, given its toxicity, but after that, any effect in terms of weight and strength gains would be negligible. So, with regards to sides from Anadrol, and the sheer fact that this study lasted so long (30 weeks), it should be apparent that they can be kept under control and the drug can be used safely. People are commonly told to limit their intake of A50 to 4 weeks or less…I’m a bit less conservative and think you can easily run A50 for 6 weeks or more.
From personal experience, however, I can tell you that gains from Anadrol are quite dramatic for the first 3 weeks, and then quickly level off. Unfortunately, I find that the side effects experienced from Anadrol (which include a headache, bloating, elevated blood pressure, and a general “unwell” feeling for me) remain for the entire duration of use….but I find, as usual, side effects for this drug are pretty much half legend and half truth. Since Anadrol is derived from DHT, it can’t actually convert to estrogen (via the aromatase enzyme), and it’s not a progestin or a compound with progestenic activity…so the estrogenic (?) side effects produced by it are of a very mysterious nature. It has been speculated that perhaps it can stimulate the estrogen receptor without actually being converted to estrogen…that’s about as plausible an explanation as I’ve heard…However, things really get strange, when Oxymetholone has been used in studies to alter the female reproductive/menstrual cycle; in those cases, it has lowered plasma progesterone levels! (7)One would expect that an AI (aromatase inhibitor) wouldn’t be of much use with this drug, but many have found that Letrozole (which has, in some cases been shown to reduce estrogen in the body to an undetectable amount)(6) can greatly reduce or even eliminate many of the more noticeable side effects of Anadrol, such as the bloating.

As I’ve stated, however, the sides from this drug are certainly no joke, but are easily preventable, and controllable. One study even showed very few sides for subjects using up to 100mgs of Oxymetholone (2). In the original UnderGround Steroid HandBook, Dan Duchaine states that he used it at doses up to 150mgs/day. Clearly, Anadrol’s hepatoxicity has been a bit exaggerated, in some circles. Be that as it may, my suggestion is still to limit Anadrol’s use to 6 weeks, at a maximum…even if just to err on the side of caution. Of course, I have personally run this drug for much longer…

How should we use Anadrol? I’d probably be willing to include Anadrol in a cycle including injectable steroids, but not other 17aa compounds. I’d make any 6-week-run of this compound begin at the start of a cycle, as a form of “jumpstart” towards seeing gains quickly. The quick gains you will get from Anadrol (up to a pound per day for the first 2 weeks are not uncommon in Steroid.com members) are also just as quick to disappear upon cessation of use….unless you are simply using it as a kickstarter, while waiting for your other compounds to kick-in. I’ll go out on a limb here and say that utilizing Anadrol as a “Jumpstart” is the most popular use of this drug for athletes and bodybuilders today. I’ll also say that this drug is immensely popular with strength athletes who don’t have to worry about weight classes (Field athletes and strongmen), and with powerlifters in the heavier weight brackets. It’s also important to note that in one study by Schroder et. Al (2) anadrol showed that it has the ability to lower serum SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin…which binds to your free test and makes it no longer useful for anabolism, among other things) concentrations by 54.9 ± 25.8 and 45 ± 16.2 nmol/l in the 50- and 100-mg treatment groups. This means there will be more free test circulating around your body when you take this drug…clearly, this would produce some synergy when stacked with other steroids. Given the large amounts of weight and strength which can be gained in a relatively short time span on this drug, I’m sure this comes as no surprise to many.

Another important and often understated characteristic of this compound is that Oxymetholone doesn’t bind well to the androgen receptor (Relative Binding Affinity = too low to be determined) (3) which is the lowest I’ve ever read about. Basically, what this tells me is that there are a lot of non-receptor mediated effects from this steroid, making it a very potent addition to ANY BULKING stack, because it won’t be competing for the receptor sites with the other steroids you’re using. It’s also, as you may have guessed a very poor choice for a cutting stack.

How much should you use? Well, this is actually one of the most interesting facts about Anadrol. You see, most steroids produce what we call a “dose respondent curve” which is a fancy way of saying “the more you use, the more you gain.”
Anadrol is one of the few steroids where the dose respondent curve flattens out very quickly. When you take 50mgs of Anadrol, you’ll make some very good gains. When you take 100mgs of Anadrol, you’ll make even more gains. However, it has been found that 100mgs/day is as effective for weight gain as 150mgs/day but produces less side effects and was less toxic (4). I feel that the jump from 50mgs to 100mgs constitutes an acceptable rise in benefit vs. cost, but this is not the case as dosages get over 100mgs. Now, lets see how 50mgs and 100mgs of Oxymetholone actually effect strength, when compared with each other:


Relative (%) changes in strength are shown for the groups receiving placebo (filled bars), 50 mg/day oxymetholone (open bars), and 100 mg/day oxymetholone (gray bars). Nos. above bars represent relative change (%) from baseline to week 12 for the 1-repetition maximum tests of strength. Error bars represent ± 1 SE from the mean. * Significant difference from placebo, P < 0.05; significant difference from placebo by Wilcoxon test, P < 0.02. See text for additional statistical analyses.


As you can see, in this study, doubling the dose of Anadrol nearly doubled the strength gains of the test subjects. Now, when we look at changes in body composition from Oxymetholone (chart below) we can see that although the guys taking the 100mgs (vs. the 50mgs group) had more fat lost and more Lean Body Mass gained, it wasn’t as dramatic as the differences in strength gains between the two groups:


Changes in body composition are shown for the groups receiving placebo (filled bars), 50 mg of oxymetholone per day (open bars), and 100 mg per day (gray bars). Numbers above the bars represent the mean absolute changes and the error bars are ± 1 SE. For total lean body mass (LBM) and total fat, differences among the 3 groups were significant (P < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA). * Significant differences from placebo, P 0.001.

Although I am usually not inclined to posit speculations on why a particular drug does or doesn’t do something, in this case I will. I’m guessing that the higher doses of Anadrol cause enough appetite suppression (at least anecdotally) to make eating rather difficult. It can also increase insulin resistance and glucose intolerance (5). This has the effect of making macronutrient absorption more inefficient, and could also be a factor in reducing gains when the dosage goes over 100mgs/day. Unfortunately, Anadrol also has a reasonably profound effect on your body’s natural hormonal system, on par with most other oral steroids, but not as bad as most injectables, and it’s certainly not as harsh on your lipid profile as many anabolics are (2). As an interesting side note, some of the medical literature on this compound suggests a dose of 1-5mgs per kg of bodyweight. I’ll pause a second here for you to figure out how absurdly high of a dose that would translate to for the average bodybuilder!


This steroid is very available on the black market in the form of capsules, tablets (some are even 75mgs!), liquid, and even paper. Prices will vary, and be indicative of many different factors including the form you buy this compound in (paper will usually be the most expensive, and liquid the least), and where you live. In any case, you shouldn’t be paying more than $2.50-3.00 per 50mgs.

References:

1. Br J Nutr. 1996 Jan;75(1):129-38.
2. Schroeder et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E 120-28
3. Endocrinology. 1984 Jun;114(6):2100-6.
4. HIV Clin Trials. 2003 May-Jun;4(3):150-63.
5. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Nov;53(5):905-8
6. Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Apr;5(2):260-3
7. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Sep 1;117(1):121-5.

Charts from reference 2:
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284: E120-E128, 2003. First published September 24, 2002; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00363.2002
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